Are ninth-grade students aware and prepared when disaster strikes?


  • Danilo Rogayan President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines
  • Ryan Mar D. Cuarto President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines
  • Mary Louise A. Ocsan President Ramon Magsaysay State University, Philippines



awareness, disaster education, mitigation, preparedness, Philippines


Awareness and preparedness are good preventive practices that can lessen the impacts of natural and man-made hazards. This descriptive cross-sectional study ascertained the extent of awareness and preparedness of ninth-grade students in terms of natural hazards and man-made disasters. The study involved 103 respondents in two public secondary schools in Zambales, Philippines. The study found out that the students have a high self-reported awareness of the different disasters, and they assessed themselves to be often prepared for the occurrences of the different disasters. The students’ disaster awareness had a significant moderate correlation with disaster preparedness. The study recommends that the students be exposed to several disaster awareness and preparedness programs to develop their understanding and preventive practices. The students' awareness of several disasters may be sustained and enhanced through various media like audio-visual presentations, posters, and IEC (information, education, and communication) materials. As students become more aware of disasters, they become more prepared for disasters. Hence, the environmental education curriculum can accentuate disaster science and management teaching to young learners as they are crucial actors in disaster preparedness, response, and mitigation


Download data is not yet available.


Abante A. M. R. (2019) Understanding preparedness insufficiency in the context of DRRM: A Case study in Malinao, Albay, Philippines. In: Kallel A. et al. (eds) Recent Advances in Geo-Environmental Engineering, Geomechanics and Geotechnics, and Geohazards. CAJG 2018.

Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham.

Alcantara-Ayala, I., Garnica-Peña, R. J., Murillo-García, F. G., Salazar-Oropeza, M. O., Méndez-Martínez, A., & Coll-Hurtado, A. (2018). Landslide disaster risk awareness in Mexico: community access to mapping at local scale. Landslides, 15(8), 1691–1704.

Alsalem, M. M. & Alghanim, S. A. (2021). An assessment of Saudi hospitals’ disaster preparedness. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(2), em0071.

Alyami, A., Dulong, C. L., Younis, M. Z., & Mansoor, S. (2021). Disaster preparedness in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Exploring and evaluating the policy, legislative organisational arrangements particularly during the Hajj period. European Journal of Environment and Public Health, 5(1), em0053.

Añasco, C. P., Monteclaro, H. M., Catedrilla, L. C., Lizada, J. C., & Baylon, C. C. (2021). Measuring small island disaster resilience towards sustainable coastal and fisheries tourism: The case of Guimaras, Philippines. Human Ecology, 1-13.

Arcayera, R. A. A. (2017). Preparedness through Gawad Kalasag: A case in Surigao City National High School [Surigao Philippines]. In 2. International Conference on Climate Change Research and Development; 6. National Climate Research Conference,, UPLB College, Laguna (Philippines), 27-28 Sep 2017. UPLB.

Asio, J. M. R. (2021). Disaster awareness and level of compliance to disaster programs in a highly urbanized city. Aquademia, 5(1), ep21003.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation International Development (ABCID). (2014). Disaster information providers in the Philippines.

Azali, N. A., & Ludin, S. M. (2020). Disaster preparedness awareness among critical care nurses at a tertiary hospital in Pahang, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Medical Research, 4(3), 26–34.

Baynosa, R. S., Montehermoso, J. F., Alimen, R. A., & Escoto, J. R. B. (2021). Disaster-preparedness and resiliency of the selected corporations in Iloilo City, Philippines. IAMURE International Journal of Ecology and Conservation, 34(1), 1-1.

Bollettino, V., Alcayna-Stevens, T., Sharma, M., Dy, P., Pham, P., & Vinck, P. (2020). Public perception of climate change and disaster preparedness: Evidence from the Philippines. Climate Risk Management, 30, 100250.

Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2009). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis and generation of evidence. Saunders Elsevier.

Chmutina, K., Rose, J., Shrestha, S. D., & Bhatta, D. (2018). Pathways to raising disaster risk reduction awareness among the informal construction stakeholders: A case of Nepal. Procedia Engineering, 212, 784–791.

Cordevilla, C. G., & Caelian, Z. G. V. (2020). Disaster risk reduction management awareness and practices of universal banks in Bacolod City. Philippine Social Science Journal, 3(2), 133–134.

Dariagan, J. D., Atando, R. B., & Asis, J. L. B. (2021). Disaster preparedness of local governments in Panay Island, Philippines. Natural hazards, 105(2), 1923–1944.

Das, R. (2018). Disaster preparedness for better response: Logistics perspectives. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 31, 153¬¬–159.

Department of Education. (2012). DepEd Order No. 48 s. 2012: Quarterly conduct of the national school-based earthquake and fire drills.

Dikmenli, Y., Yakar, H., & Konca, A. S. (2018). Development of disaster awareness scale: A validity and reliability study. Review of International Geographical Education Online, 8(2), 206-220.

Domingo, S. N., & Manejar, A. J. A. (2018). Disaster preparedness and local governance in the Philippines (No. 2018-52). PIDS Discussion Paper Series.

Dorasamy, M., Raman, M., & Kaliannan, M. (2017). Integrated community emergency management and awareness system: A knowledge management system for disaster support. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 121, 139–167.

Fernandez, G., & Shaw, R. (2015). Youth participation in disaster risk reduction through science clubs in the Philippines. Disasters, 39(2), 279-294.

Fino, R., Lin, M. J., Caballero, A., & Balahadia, F. F. (2017). Disaster awareness simulation for children with autism spectrum disorder using android virtual reality. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 9(2-6), 59–62.

Gatan, P. R. G., Yangco, R. T., & Monterola, S. L. C. (2021). Relationships among environmental literacy, locus of control, and future orientation of STEM students in the Philippines. Interdisciplinary Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 17(4), e2250.

Goniewicz, K., & Goniewicz, M. (2020). Disaster preparedness and professional competence among healthcare providers: pilot study results. Sustainability, 12(12), 4931.

Gowing, J. R., Walker, K. N., Elmer, S. L., & Cummings, E. A. (2017). Disaster preparedness among health professionals and support staff: what is effective? An integrative literature review. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 32(3), 321–328.

Herdiansyah, H., Husein, S. I., Asrofani, F. W., & Kholila, B. N. (2020, June). Disaster awareness through disaster preparedness education for primary schools. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 519, No. 1, p. 012016). IOP Publishing.

Hoffmann, R., & Muttarak, R. (2017). Learn from the past, prepare for the future: Impacts of education and experience on disaster preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand. World Development, 96, 32-51.

Hosseini, K. A., & Izadkhah, Y. O. (2020). From “Earthquake and safety” school drills to “safe school-resilient communities”: A continuous attempt for promoting community-based disaster risk management in Iran. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 45, 101512.

Indiran, M. A. (2017). Awareness and attitude towards mass disaster and its management among house surgeons in a dental college and hospital in Chennai, India. Disaster Management and Human Health Risk V: Reducing Risk, Improving Outcomes, 173, 121.

Kamil, P. A., Utaya, S., & Utomo, D. H. (2020). Improving disaster knowledge within high school students through geographic literacy. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 43, 101411.

Kastolani, W., & Mainaki, R. (2018). Does educational disaster mitigation need to be introduced In school?. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 42, p. 00063). EDP Sciences.

Khan, A. A., Rana, I. A., & Nawaz, A. (2020). Gender-based approach for assessing risk perception in a multi-hazard environment: A study of high schools of Gilgit, Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 44, 101427.

Khan, A. A., Rana, I. A., Nawaz, A., & Waheed, A. (2021). Gender-based emergency preparedness and awareness: empirical evidences from high-school students of Gilgit, Pakistan. Environmental Hazards, 20(4), 416–431.

Knupfer, N. N., & McLellan, H. (1996). Descriptive research methodologies. In D. Johnassen (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology (pp. 1196–1212). New York: Macmillan.

Labrague, L. J., Hammad, K., Gloe, D. S., McEnroe‐Petitte, D. M., Fronda, D. C., Obeidat, A. A., Leocadio, M. C., Cayaban, A. R., & Mirafuentes, E. C. (2018). Disaster preparedness among nurses: A systematic review of literature. International Nursing Review, 65(1), 41–53.

Lee, E., & Lee, H. (2019). Disaster awareness and coping: Impact on stress, anxiety, and depression. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 55(2), 311–318.

Luetz, J. M. (2020). Disaster-resistant schools for disaster-resilient education. In Leal Filho W; Marisa Azul A; Brandli L; Gökcin Özuyar P; Wall T (Eds.) Quality education, Encyclopedia of the UN sustainable development goals, pp. 1–17, Springer Nature.

Luetz, J. M., & Sultana, N. (2019). Disaster risk reduction begins at school: Research in Bangladesh highlights education as a key success factor for building disaster ready and resilient communities—A manifesto for mainstreaming disaster risk education. In Addressing the challenges in communicating climate change across various audiences (pp. 617-646). Springer, Cham.

Mamon, M. A. C., Suba, R. A. V., & Son, I. L. (2017). Disaster risk reduction knowledge of Grade 11 students: Impact of senior high school disaster education in the Philippines. International Journal of Health System and Disaster Management, 5(3), 69–74.

Matthies, A. (2017). Community-based disaster risk management in the Philippines: Achievements and challenges of the purok system. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 10(1), 101–108.

Munasinghe, N. L., & Matsui, K. (2019). Examining disaster preparedness at Matara district General Hospital in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 40, 101154.

Mustadi, A., & Atmojo, S. E. (2020). Student's disaster literation in 'SETS' (science environment technology and society) disaster learning. Elementary Education Online, 19(2), 667–678.

Öcal, A., & Topkaya, Y. (2011). Earthquake preparedness in schools in seismic hazard regions in the South‐East of Turkey. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.

Panase, A. P., & Doruelo, M. E. Y. (2020). Awareness and practices on disaster risk preparedness of maritime students. Philippine Social Science Journal, 3(2), 65–66.

Park, J. E. (2019). A convergence study on disaster awareness, disaster preparedness, and ego-resilience of nursing students. Journal of Convergence for Information Technology, 9(11), 38–46.

Pavlova, I., Makarigakis, A., Depret, T., & Jomelli, V. (2017). Global overview of the geological hazard exposure and disaster risk awareness at world heritage sites. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 28, 151–157.

Proulx, K., & Aboud, F. (2019). Disaster risk reduction in early childhood education: Effects on preschool quality and child outcomes. International Journal of Educational Development, 66, 1-7.

Rahman, M. L. (2019). High school students' seismic risk perception and preparedness in Savar, Dhaka. Educational Research and Reviews, 14(5), 168–177.

Ravago, M. L. V., Mapa, C. D. S., Aycardo, A. G., & Abrigo, M. R. (2020). Localized disaster risk management index for the Philippines: Is your municipality ready for the next disaster?. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 51, 101913.

Rivera, F. I., & Kapucu, N. (2015). Disaster vulnerability, hazards and resilience: Perspectives from Florida. Springer Cham.

Rogayan, D. V. Jr., & Dollete, L. F. (2020). Disaster awareness and preparedness of barrio community in Zambales, Philippines: creating a baseline for curricular integration and extension program. Review of International Geographical Education, 10(2), 92–114.

Rogayan, D.V., Jr., & Nebrida, E.E.N. (2019). Environmental awareness and practices of Science students: Input for ecological management plan. International Electronic Journal of Environmental Education, 9(2), 106–119.

Sakurai, A., Bisri, M. B. F., Oda, T., Oktari, R. S., Murayama, Y., & Affan, M. (2018). Exploring minimum essentials for sustainable school disaster preparedness: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 29, 73–83.

Salita, C., Tiongco, R. E., & Kawano, R. (2020). Assessment of school teachers’ disaster preparedness using the extended parallel process model: a cross-sectional study in Angeles City, Philippines. Journal of Public Health, 1–8.

Shah, A. A., Gong, Z., Pal, I., Sun, R., Ullah, W., & Wani, G. F. (2020). Disaster risk management insight on school emergency preparedness–a case study of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 51, 101805.

Shah, A. A., Ye, J., Pan, L., Ullah, R., Shah, S. I. A., Fahad, S., & Naz, S. (2018). Schools’ flood emergency preparedness in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 9(2), 181-194.

Soriano, G. (2019). Disaster risk reduction knowledge among local people in a selected community in the Philippines. Journal of Health and Caring Sciences, 1(2), 92–99.

Superio, D. L., Abaday, E. M., Oliveros, M. G. H., Delgado, A. S., Palcullo, V. E. V., & Geromiano, J. F. (2019). Fire+ water+ bombs: Disaster management among academic libraries in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 41, 101311.

Titko, M., & Ristvej, J. (2020). Assessing importance of disaster preparedness factors for sustainable disaster risk management: The case of the Slovak Republic. Sustainability, 12(21), 9121.

Tkachuck, M. A., Schulenberg, S. E., & Lair, E. C. (2018). Natural disaster preparedness in college students: Implications for institutions of higher learning. Journal of American College Health, 66(4), 269–279.

Torrentira, M. C. Jr., & Makilan, M. (2018) Framework of disaster preparedness among coastal communities in Davao City, Philippines. The Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2(4), 84–91.

Triastari, I., Dwiningrum, S. I. A., & Rahmia, S. H. (2021, November). Developing disaster mitigation education with local wisdom: Exemplified in Indonesia schools. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 884, No. 1, p. 012004). IOP Publishing.

Valenzuela, V. P. B., Esteban, M., Takagi, H., Thao, N. D., & Onuki, M. (2020). Disaster awareness in three low risk coastal communities in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 46, 101508.

Ventura, G. L., & Madrigal, D. V. (2020). Awareness and practices on disaster preparedness of students of a public high school in Antique. Philippine Social Science Journal, 3(2), 45–46.

Vicario-Merino, A., Muñoz-Agustín, N., Ruiz-López, M., Guodemar-Pérez, J., Hervás-Pérez, J. P., & Pérez-Manchón, D. (2019). Disaster preparedness in the Philippines: From the will to the way. Open Journal of Political Science, 9(3), 571–581.

Wardana, S., Herdiansyah, H., & Wicaksono, A. (2021, March). The actualization of student’s disaster preparedness at the elementary and secondary education level of disaster-aware school. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 683, No. 1, p. 012034). IOP Publishing.

White‐Lewis, S., Beach, E., & Zegers, C. (2021). Improved knowledge of disaster preparedness in underrepresented secondary students: A quasi‐experimental Study. Journal of School Health, 91(6), 490–498.

World Risk Report. (2018). World risk report 2021. Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft and Ruhr University Bochum - Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict (IFHV).




How to Cite

Rogayan, D., Cuarto, R. M. D., & Ocsan, M. L. A. (2022). Are ninth-grade students aware and prepared when disaster strikes? . Journal of Science and Education (JSE), 2(2), 65-80.