Effect of Eng-Hau medium of instruction on Upper-Basic students’ achievement in Algebra


  • John Tyavbee Ajai Taraba State University, Nigeria
  • Solomon A. O. Iyekekpolor Taraba State University, Nigeria
  • Herbert R. Hanawa Taraba State University, Nigeria




Eng-Hau, English language only, Hausa language, students’ achievement, gender difference, interaction effect


The perennial problem of poor performance of students in mathematics has made stakeholders in the education sector undertake several types of research, with diverse findings on the causes, with different recommendations for improvement. In this study Eng-Hau, a coinage for the combination of the English and Hausa languages was used to teach algebra. 244 Upper Basic School Two students in the Jalingo metropolis, Taraba state, Nigeria, were used for the study. Three research questions and hypotheses guided the study, using quasi-experimental of the non-equivalent group, involving pre-test and post-test treatment, and factorial designs. Algebra Achievement Test with a reliability index of 0.74, obtained through KR-20 formula was used for data collection. Methodology instructional packages, where algebra concepts were translated into the Hausa language were used to teach the students. Analysis of Covariance was used to test the hypotheses. Findings show that students taught using Eng-Hau performed better than those taught using the English language only. No gender disparity was found with students taught using Eng-Hau. The study also found no interaction effect of medium of instruction and gender on students’ achievement, an indication that achievement in mathematics is not based on gender, but on the medium of instruction.


Download data is not yet available.


Abubakar, H., Umar, S. A., & Musawa, B. I. (2015). The impact of language in the teaching and learning of mathematics at junior secondary school in Katsina. International Journal of Research and Development Organisation, 2(12), 6 – 16.

Adah, V., & Sule, B. O. (2019). An Analysis of the Academic Performance of Candidates by Gender in SSCE (NECO). Mathematical Theory and Modeling, 9, (2), 1 – 8.

Aggarwal, Y. P. (2004). Statistical Method: Concepts, application and computation. (3rd Ed). New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Ltd.

Asuquo, E. N., & Onasanya, S. A. (2006). Gender differences and students’ achievement in computer technology instruction. West Africa Journal of Educational Research 9 (1 & 2), 1 – 8

Arzadon, C. (2010). Dedicated to course greater than them. In Nalasco, R. M. D., Datar, F. A., Azurin, A. M. (eds). Starting where children are; A collection of Essays on Mother Tongue- Bassed multigual education and language issues in Philippines, Quezon City: 170+talayta yan MLE inc; 12-17.

Azurin, A. M. (2010). Reinventing basic education: the shift to mother tongue-based instruction. In Nolasco, R. M. D., Datar, F. A., Azurin, A.M. (Eds.) Starting where the Children Are: A Collection of Essays on Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education and Language Issues in the Philippines, Quezon City:170+Talaytayan MLE Inc., 1-6.

Bala, D. & Apagu D. (2017). Effect of Language of Teaching on Performance in Mathematical Concepts of Junior Secondary School (JSS) Students in Hawul Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria.

Busolo, A. J. (2011). Gender differences in students’ achievement in chemistry in secondary schools of Kakamega district, KENYA. Unpublished thesis submitted to Kenyatta University.

Chinweokwu, O. M., (2013): Effect of Language of Instruction on Students’ Academic Achievement and Interest in Agriculture in Primary Schools in Imo State. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Vocational Teacher Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Dorgu, T. E., & Igbojinwaekwu P. C. (2016): Comparative Effects of Using Igbo and English Languages as Media of Instructions on Academic Achievement of Students in Primary School Mathematics, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development 4 (2), 80 – 92

Ekwue, N. L. & Umukoro, P. (2011). Assessment of the Level of Coverage of Topics in Delta State Senatorial Districts. Journal of Mathematical Association of Nigeria 36, (1), 149 – 158

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2013). National Policy on Education, 4th edition. Abuja: NERDC Press

Feza-Piyose, N. (2012). Language; A cultural capital for conceptualizing mathematics knowledge. International Electronics Journal of Mathematics Education, 7 (2), 62 – 79

Israel, O. O. & Thomas, O. O. (2013). Effect of mother tongue and mathematical language on primary students’ performance. Journals of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Study, 4 (3) 542.

Njoroge. (2017). The efficacy of using mother language in the teaching of mathematics and science in primary schools: Evidence from grade one classrooms in Kenya. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research 4, (8), 133 – 150

Ogbonne, I. A. (2012): Effect of Kumon teaching strategy on junior secondary school students’ achievement, interest and retention in Statistics. Unpublished M. Ed Dissertation, Department of Science Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Oginni Omoniyi, I., & Owolabi Olabode, T. (2013). Effect of mother tongue and mathematical language on primary school pupils performance in mathematics. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies, 4(3), 542-546.

Oludipe, D. I. (2012). Gender difference in Nigerian junior secondary students’ academic achievement in basic science. Journal of Educational and Social Research 2 (1), 93 – 98

Onuoha, C. J., (2016). Effect of Mathematics game-based instructional techniques on students’ achievements and interest in algebra at basic educational level. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Onyeka, E. C. & Arokoyu, A. A. (2018). Trends in students’ performance in senior school certificate examination (SSCE) in mathematics between 2010 and 2015: Implication for sustainable development. International Journal of Applied Research 4 (9), 99 – 102.

Orton, A. (2012). Learning Mathematics: Issues, Theory and Classroom Practice. London. Cassell Education.

Percy, S., & Andrew M., (2014): Sources of Difficulty in Comprehending and Solving Mathematical Word Problems. International Journal of Educational Science, 6 (2), 217 – 225.

Sambo, A. A. (2005). Research method in education. Ibadan: Stirling Hording publishers.

Sanda, A. A., Kida, A. M., & Okwute, A. O. (2018). Effect of English and Hausa Languages on Basic Adult Education Learners’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Continuing Education Institute, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. European Journal of Education Studies, 5 (2), 144 – 159. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1421286

Setati, M., Chitera N., & Essien A. (2009): Research on multilingualism in mathematics education in South Africa: 2000-2007. Africa Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, (Special Issue), 65-80.

Wushishi, D. I., Nasifa, A., & Sadiq H. O. (2016). Effects of Hausa Language of Instruction on Secondary School Biology Students’ Academic Performance in Sokoto State, Nigeria. International journal of scientific research in science, engineering and technology, 2 (3), 551 – 558

Yakubu, K.O. (2016). Effects of field-based teaching strategy on interest, retention and performance in climate change among secondary school students in Anchau, Kaduna, Nigeria. Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Zalmon, I., G., & Wonu, N. (2017). Comparative analysis of student mathematics achievement in West African senior secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Educational Sciences, 5 (1), 24 – 31.


PlumX Metrics



How to Cite

Ajai, J. T., Iyekekpolor, S. . A. O., & Hanawa , H. R. (2022). Effect of Eng-Hau medium of instruction on Upper-Basic students’ achievement in Algebra. Journal of Science and Education (JSE), 3(1), 40-50. https://doi.org/10.56003/jse.v3i1.144